Compiled by Kiran Kumar, Business Analyst at Powerupcloud Technologies.
The battle of the Big 3 Cloud Service Providers
The cloud ecosystem is in a constant state of evolution, with increasing maturity and adoption, the battle for the mind and wallet intensifies. With Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud (GCP) leading with IaaS maturity, the likes of Salesforce, SAP, and Oracle to Workday, which recently reached $1B in quarterly revenue are both gaining ground and carving out niches in the the ‘X’aaS space. The recent COVID crisis has accelerated both adoption and consideration as enterprises transform to cope, differentiate, and sustain an advantage over the competition.
In this article, I will stick to referencing the AWS, Azure, and GCP and terming them as the BIG 3, a disclaimer, Powerup is a top-tier partner with all three and the comparisons are purely objective based on current publically available information. It is very likely that when you do read this article a lot might have already changed. Having said that, the future will belong to those who excel in providing managed solutions around artificial intelligence, analytics, IoT, and edge computing. So let’s dive right in:
Amazon Web Services – As the oldest amongst the three and the most widely known, showcasing the biggest spread of availability zones and an extensive roster of services. It has monopolized its maturity to activate a developer ecosystem globally, which has proven to be a critical enabler of its widespread use.
Microsoft Azure – Azure is the closest that one gets to AWS in terms of products and services. While AWS has fully leveraged its head start, Azure tapped into Microsoft’s huge enterprise customers and let them take advantage of the already existing infrastructure by providing better value through Windows support and interoperability.
Google Cloud Platform – Google Cloud was announced in 2011, for being less than a decade old it has created a significant footprint. Initially intended to strengthen google’s products but later came up with an enterprise offering. A lot is expected from its deep expertise in AI, ML, deep learning & data analytics to give it a significant edge over the other providers.
AWS vs. Azure vs. Google Cloud: Overall Pros and Cons
In this analysis, I dive into broad technical aspects of these 3 cloud providers based on the common parameters listed below.
Amazon EC2 EC2 or Elastic compute cloud is Amazon’s compute offering. EC2 can support multiple instance types (bare metal, GPU, windows, Linux, and more)and can be launched with different security and networking options, you can choose from a wide range of templates available based on your use case. EC2 can both resize and autoscale to handle changes in requirements which eliminates the need for complex governance.
Amazon Elastic Container Service a highly scalable, high-performance container orchestration service that supports Docker containers and allows you to easily run and scale containerized applications, manage and scale a cluster of VM’s, or schedule containers on those VM’s.
Amazon EKS makes it easy to deploy, manage, and scale containerized applications using Kubernetes on AWS.
It also has its own Fargate service that automates server and cluster management for containers, a virtual private cloud option known as Lightsail for batch computing jobs, Elastic Beanstalk for running and scaling Web applications, lambda for launching serverless applications.
Container services Include Amazon Elastic Container Registry a fully-managed Docker container registry which allows you to store, manage, and deploy Docker container images.
Azure VM: Azure VM’s are a secure and highly scalable compute solution with various instance types optimized for high-performance computing, Ai, and ML-based computing container instances and with azure’s emphasis on hybrid computing, support for multiple OS’s types, Microsoft software, and services. Virtual Machine Scale Sets are used to auto-scale your instances.
Azure container services include Azure Kubernetes service fully managed Kubernetes based Container Solution.
Container Registry which lets you store and manage container images across all types of Azure deployments.
Service Fabric A unique fully managed services which lets you develop microservices and orchestrate containers on Windows or Linux.
Other services include Web App for Containers which lets you run, scale, and deploy containerized web apps. Azure Functions for launching serverless applications, Azure Red Hat OpenShift, with support for OpenShift.
Google Compute Engine:
Google Compute Engine (GCE) is google compute service Google is fairly new to cloud compared to the other two CSP’s and it is reflected in its catalog of services GCE offers the standard array of features starting from windows and Linux instances, RESTful API’s, load balancing, data storage, and networking, CLI and GUI interfaces, and easy scaling. Backed by Google, GCE can spin up instances faster than most of its competition under most cases. It runs on a carbon-neutral infrastructure and offers the best value for your buck among the competition.
Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) is based on Kubernetes, originally developed inhouse Google has the highest expertise when it comes to Kubernetes and has deeply integrated it into the google cloud platform GKE service can be used to automate many of your deployment, maintenance, and management tasks. Also can be used with hybrid clouds via the Anthos service.
Amazon S3 is an object storage service that offers scalability, data availability, security, and performance for most of your storage requirements. Amazon Elastic Block Store persistent block storage that can be used with your Amazon EC2 instances. Elastic file system for scalable file storage.
Other storage services include S3 Glacier, a secure, durable, and extremely low-cost storage service for data archiving and long-term backup, Storage Gateway for hybrid storage, and snowball, a device used for offline small to medium scale data transfer.
And other database services like Amazon Aurora a SQL compatible relational database, RDS (relational database service), DynamoDB NoSQL database, Amazon ElastiCache forElasti Cache in-memory data store, Redshift data warehouse, Amazon Neptune a graph database.
Azure Blobs A massively scalable object storage solution, includes support for big data analytics through Data Lake Storage Gen2, Azure Files Managed file storage solution with support for on-prem, Azure Queues A reliable messaging store, Azure Tables A NoSQL storage solution for structured data.
Azure Disks Block-level storage volumes for Azure VMs similar to Amazon EBS.
Database Services Include SQL based database like Azure SQL Database, Azure Database for MySQL, and, Azure Database for PostgreSQL for NoSQL data warehouse services, Cosmos DB, and table storage, Server stretch database is a hybrid storage service designed specifically for organizations leveraging Microsoft SQL on-prem and, Redis cache is an in-memory data storage service.
Google Cloud Storage:
GCP’s cloud storage service includes Google Cloud Storage unified, scalable, and highly durable object storage, Filestore network-attached storage (NAS) for Compute Engine and GKE instances, Persistent Disk object storage for VM instances and, Transfer Appliance for Large data transfer.
On the database side, GCP has 3 NoSQL database Cloud BigTable for storing big data, Firestore a document database for mobile and web application data, Bigquery an analytics server, Memorystore for in-memory storage, Firebase Realtime Database cloud database for storing and syncing data in real-time. SQL-based Cloud SQL and a relational database called, Cloud Spanner that is designed for mission-critical workloads.
An additional drill-down would be to analyze performance figures for the three across for network, storage, and CPU, and here I quote research data from a study conducted by Cockroach labs.
GCP has taken significant strides when it comes to network and latency compared to last year as it even outperforms AWS and Azure in network performance
- Some of GCP’s best performing machines hover around 40-60 GB/sec
- AWS machines stick to their claims and offer a consistent 20 to 25 GB/sec and
- Azure’s machines offered significantly less at 8 GB/sec.
- When it comes to latency AWS outshines the competition by offering a consistent performance across all of its machines.
- GCP does undercut AWS under some cases but still lacks the consistency of AWS.
- Azure’s negligible performance in the network department has reflected in high latency making it the least performing among the three.
NOTE: GCP believes that skylake for the n1 family of machines, is the reason for their increase in performance on the network side.
AWS has superior performance in storage; neither GCP nor Azure even comes close to the read-write speeds and latency figures. This is largely due to the storage optimized instances like the i3 series. Azure and GCP do not have storage optimized instances and have a performance that is comparable to the non-storage optimized instances from Amazon While Azure offered slightly better read-write speed among the two, GCP offered better latency.
While comparing the CPU’s performances Azure machines showcased a slightly higher CPU performance thanks to Using conventional 16 core CPUs. Azure machines use 16 cores with a single thread per core and other clouds use hyperthreading to achieve 16 cores by combining 8cores with 2 threads. After comparing each offering across the three platforms here’s the best each cloud platform has to offer.
- AWS c5d.4xlarge 25000 – 50000 Bogo ops per sec
- Azure Standard_DS14_v2 just over 75000 Bogo ops per sec
- GCP c2-standard-16 25000 – 50000 Bogo ops per sec
- While AWS and GCP figures look similar AWS overall offers slightly better than GCP and
- Avoiding hyperthreading has inflated Azure’s figures and while it might still be superior in performance it may not accurately represent the difference in the performance power it offers.
For detailed benchmarking reports visit Cockroach Labs
Going forward, technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, the Internet of Things(IoT), and serverless computing will play a huge role in shaping the technology industry. The goal of most of the services and products will try to take advantage of these technologies to deliver solutions more efficiently and with precision. All of the “BIG 3“providers have begun experimenting with offerings in these areas. This can very well be the key differentiator between them.
AWS Key Tools:
Some of the latest additions to the AWS portfolio include AWS Graviton processors built using 64 bit Arm Neoverse cores. EC2 based M6g, C6g, and R6g instances are powered by these new-gen instances. Thanks to the power-efficient Arm architecture it is said to provide 40% better price performance over the X86 based instances.
AWS Outpost: Outpost is Amazon’s emphasis on the hybrid architecture; it is a fully managed ITaaS solution that brings all AWS products and services to anywhere by physically deploying it in your site. It is aimed at offering a consistent hybrid experience with the scalability and flexibility of AWS.
AWS has put a lot of time and effort into developing a relatively broad range of products and services in AI and ML space. Some of the important ones include AWS Sagemaker service for training and deploying machine learning models, the Lex conversational interface, and Polly text-to-speech service which powers Alexa services, its Greengrass IoT messaging service and the Lambda serverless computing service.
And AI-powered services like DeepLens which can be trained and used for OCR, Image, and, character Recognition, Gluon, an open-source deep-learning library designed to build and quickly train neural networks without having to know AI programming.
Azure Key Tools:
When it comes to hybrid support Azure offers a very strong proposition, with services like Azure stack and Azure Arc minimize your risks of going wrong. Knowing that a lot of enterprises are already using Microsoft’s services Azure tries to deepen this by offering enhanced security and flexibility through its hybrid services. With Azure Arc customers can manage resources deployed within Azure and outside of Azure through the same control plane enabling organizations to extend Azure services to their on-prem data centers.
Azure also consists of a comprehensive family of AI services and cognitive APIs which helps you build intelligent apps, services like Bing Web Search API, Text Analytics API, Face API, Computer Vision API and Custom Vision Service come under it. For IoT, it has several management and analytics services, and it also has a serverless computing service known as Functions.
Google Cloud Key Tools:
AI and machine learning are big areas of focus for GCP. Google is a leader in AI development, thanks to TensorFlow, an open-source software library for building machine learning applications. It is the single most popular library in the market, with AWS also adding support for TensorFlow in an acknowledgment of this.
Google Cloud has strong offerings in APIs for natural language, speech, translation, and more. Additionally, it offers IoT and serverless services, but both are still in beta stage. However Google has been working extensively on Anthos, as quoted by Sundar Pichai Anthos follows the “Write once and run anywhere” approach by allowing organizations to run Kubernetes workloads on-premises, AWS or Azure, however, Azure support is still in a beta testing stage.
Each of the three has its own set of features and come with their own set of constraints and advantages. The selection of the appropriate cloud provider should, therefore, like with most enterprise software be based on your organizational goals over the long term.
However, we strongly believe that multi-cloud will be the way forward for an organization for e.g. if an organization is an existing user of Microsoft’s services it is natural for it to prefer Azure. Most small, web-based/digitally native companies looking to scale quickly by leveraging AI/ML, Data services, would want to take a good look at Google Cloud. And of course, AWS with its absolute scale of products and services and maturity makes it very hard to ignore in any mix.
Hope this shed some light on the technical considerations, and will follow this up with some of the other key evaluating factors that we think you should consider while selecting your cloud provider.